All material shown or referred to is based on the same text, but may have been individually changed, whereby the PDF-Text below is the most updated version. 


Home / Chapters
C 1 C 2 C 3
C 4 C 5 C 6
C 7 C 8 C 9
Bibliography

The Book in PDF

Black & White Edition in U.S.A
Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939

Colored Edition in Europe
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939
Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details in right column. Ca. 116 pages and 100 color figures. Details see column.
 
The ‘Special Pages’ are not integrated in the HMTL presentation below.

LINKS TO RELATED SITES

Quick Access to the various sites:
www.ocean-climate-law.com
  This link provides quick access to the sites related to climatic issue and the Law of the Sea.

General site - HOME PAGE:
www.oceanclimate.de
  The web-site serves as home page with two main functions. On one hand it provides access to work published in the 1990s and recently, but on the other hand discusses topics of topical themes, named Letters, presented at the front page. Pervious letters are store in the Archive.

Specialized sites. CLIMATE

  • Effect of Naval Warfare:
www.seaclimate.com
  This site provides an comprehensive overview of the material assessed and analyzed of the possible impact of naval war on the weather pattern and climatic changes during the 20th Century. It covers the sudden arctic warming that commenced in winter 1918/19 with an impact over a wider region, particularly in Europe during the 1920s and 1930, followed by three extreme winters all over Northern Europe from autumn 1939 to spring 1942, which also marked the start of a three decade long global cooling period. The main focus is clearly the analysis of the naval force impact on the winter weather conditions during the first three war years of WWII. As it seems possible to prove this influence beyond doubt, this time period covers about three-fourth of the total work that are presented in about 30 sections.
    NOTE: As the hmtl-version from 2004 represents the first workout, it is recommended to make use from the available PDF-files, which are actually a copy of a subsequent book with figures and graphs and a substantial better English as the original web-site text.


www.warchangesclimate.com
The presented material is actually the copies of published books with a tauten text of the book mentioned together with the previous site. They present not only the analysis more briefly but have numerous graphics, one book only in b/w, the other contains also a number of colored graphics.

www.arctic-warming.com
Primarily a part of the overall assessment of the climate during the last century (http://www.seaclimate.com/), over the time passing, the early arctic warming became too interesting and demanding for being presented only as an appendix of the main analysis: the winter 1939-1942. Together with the preparation of a oral presentation at a PACON Conference in Honolulu/Hawaii in June 2007 the website emerged as a subject on its own with a detailed review of the When, Where, and Why of the warming event, concluding that it has been caused by the West-Spitsbergen Current, and that the naval war activities in the seas around Great Britain during the years 1914-1918 should not be ignored when searching for the ultimate event that may have cause the Spitsbergen Current supply the arctic with higher temperatures.
    Note: The PACON-Conference paper is on the site available in English, French, Russian, Polish, and German.

  • The meaning of "CLIMATE"
www.whatisclimate.com
One of the most insufficiencies of the climate change debate is the lack of a reasonable and useful definition of CLIMATE. It makes little sense to regard 'climate as the average weather', as it demonstrates that the mechanism of climate is little understood. This does not only prevents a fruitful discussion, but is quickly generating an irrational debate. As a matter of fact, all the work on climate change and the naval war effect (see previous reference), has been undertaken to fight this ignorance. This conviction derives from a long maritime experience by living and professional circumstances, as well as maritime lawyer (see: http://www.bernaerts-sealaw.com). The ocean and seas are the supplier and deciders of the global climate and if mankind wants to avoid anthropogenic climatic changes, it needs to understand how the ocean and the relation ocean/climate works, and the master plan for understanding and appropriate action id the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. However the first step on this road is to define what CLIMATE is, to which http://www.whatisclimate.com/ intents to contribute.

Specialized sites: LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS)

The Book "Bernaerts" Guide to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea"; which had been published by Fairplay/UK in 1988, received a reprint in 2006, after the original text was simultaneously made electronically available online:

www.bernaerts-sealaw.com
The book from 1988 is presented on this site, except the related legal documents available with the hard copy.

Miscellaneous & Sites in German:

The following sites also belong to the presented complex, but will here only be mentioned without further explanation:

       Note: Papers and articles in German since the 1980s can be found here.
Book details

U.S.A. Edition in B/W



Details will be presented soon

Europe Edition in Color

  • About the book
    The ice in the polar region is melting away at an unprecedented speed during the last decade. Is the Arctic screaming? Is a tipping point reached? Is the ice melting apocalyptic? Indeed, during the last 150 years the sea ice retreat has never been as severe as in recent years. But, what is the cause? Was the current warming set in motion by the early Arctic warming which started since the late 1910s, and lasted from 1919 to 1939?
    The book will provide astonishing, but important answers. Actually, the extraordinary warming in the polar region, since 1919, was not an Arctic, but a Spitsbergen warming. The study shows that it is possible to set with precision the location and timing of the warming. Available information of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, North Europe, and Russia are analyzed in order to establish with accuracy, where and when the warming appeared, and by which magnitude. After all, the warming lasted for two decades and was in 1938 as high as currently. Thus, the investigation provides a unique picture on the knowledge about the Arctic impact on the climate.
    This work elaborates historical and resent research papers comprehensively and discusses them in such detail that seems no longer possible to assume that the earlier Arctic warming is due to "natural variability". Calling the ice melting an: "Apocalypse Now", should be met with reservation, as long as the first Arctic warming from 1919 to 1939 is not thoroughly understood. With the material and information presented, the climate change debate will be enhanced with astonishing new aspects.
  • Publisher
  • The ice in the polar region is melting away at an unprecedented speed during the last decade. Is the Arctic screaming? Is a tipping point reached? Is the ice melting apocalyptic? Indeed, during the last 150 years the sea ice retreat has never been as severe as in recent years. But, what is the cause? Was the current warming set in motion by the early Arctic warming which started since the late 1910s, and lasted from 1919 to 1939?
    The book will provide astonishing, but important answers. Actually, the extraordinary warming in the polar region, since 1919, was not an Arctic, but a Spitsbergen warming. The study shows that it is possible to set with precision the location and timing of the warming. Available information of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, North Europe, and Russia are analyzed in order to establish with accuracy, where and when the warming appeared, and by which magnitude. After all, the warming lasted for two decades and was in 1938 as high as currently. Thus, the investigation provides a unique picture on the knowledge about the Arctic impact on the climate.
    This work elaborates historical and resent research papers comprehensively and discusses them in such detail that seems no longer possible to assume that the earlier Arctic warming is due to "natural variability". Calling the ice melting an: "Apocalypse Now", should be met with reservation, as long as the first Arctic warming from 1919 to 1939 is not thoroughly understood. With the material and information presented, the climate change debate will be enhanced with astonishing new aspects.
  • Order; ca. Price
  • · Via major internet book shops
    · ISBN 978-3-8370-9524-1
    · About Euro 19,80
  • Acknowledgement
  • This book would not have been possible without the invaluable help and commitment from Angela Boartes. The liaison commenced in 2006 and includes the care for the websites www.whatisclimate.com and www.arctic-warming.com. Arctic warming became the first big challenge by preparing a conference paper for PACON 2007/Honolulu and a website, and Angela supported it greatly. When it was decided to present the complex matter in great detail and underline the text with explanatory images, Angela and her team showed high professionalism and willingness. It made the research, the elaborating of material, and the writing a smooth and enjoyable undertaking. Angela also undertook all the formatting and publication procedure. With appreciation I express my very cordial thanks.

    Arnd Bernaerts/February 2009
  • Note about the Editions
  • The various website and book presentations are all based on the same text. However some differences may occur due to changes and modification, which will not always be done to all available versions, or not at the same time, or it is not reasonable possible. The version to be regarded as the most updated text are the PDF-files of the Europe Color Edition at the Home-Page, left column.
  • About us
Access to previous Material Access to related sites
Recent papers since 2007

20th PACON Conf. 2007
"CAN THE "BIG WARMING" AT SPITSBERGEN
FROM 1918 to 1940 BE EXPLAINED?"
CD-ROM. Pages: 325-337.
DOC PDF

Conf. Paper with Figures
In English
» DOC » PDF
In French
» PDF » HTML
In Russian
» PDF » HTML
In Polish
» PDF » HTML
In German
» PDF » HTML

Annex

Annex B I - Colored Sea Ice graphs 1910-1919
Annex F - Air Temp. 1912-1930; North Atlantic Region.
Annex G - Annual Mean Temp

General Material
  • April Sea Ice Cover 1910 -1919.
  • January & February Temperatures 1912 to 1930 at various stations.
  • Annual Mean Temperatures from ca. 1880 to 1945 at various stations.