The Book (2012)

HOME, ToC   A1, A2, A3, B, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, D, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, F, G1, G2, G3, H, I, J, K-pdf, L-pdf       

Page finder to 14 temperature maps in color (TM)

Maps in Color

TM1, p. 5 (A2)

TM2, p.15 (A3)

TM3, p. 25 (B)

TM4, p. 45 (C1)

 TM5, p. 59 (C4)

 TM6, p. 69 (C5)

TM7, p. 93  (C8)

 TM8, p. 109 (D)

TM9, p. 125 (E1)

TM10, p. 143 (E4)

TM11, p. 157 (F)

TM12, p.163 (G1)

TM13, p. 181 (H)

 TM14, p. 191 (I)

  NOTE: Edition printed and distributed in North America 
may not show the TM in color.


By Dieter E. Koop, Oceanographer.















Winter temperatures in Denmark

Winter temperatues in North Europe

Foreword by Dieter Koop

Table of Contents  

A. A Guide to understand climate change  (Book pages 1-12)

A1. Introduction to climate change and man’s contribution (p. 1-2)     (in: PDF)

A2. The experts who do not see a war (p. 3ff)    (in: PDF)
a. Sensational observations at Kew Observatory  #  b. Stockholm - Bingo! Three-winter record!  #  c. At the Centre of Marine Meteorology, but….?  #  d.  Cold and Special - Winter 1939/40  #  e. The biggest forecasting flop ever  #  f. Describing winter weather – without searching for causes  #  g. A lasting secret? The cut-off low pressure areas. Winter 1941/42  #  h. Cyclone density changes during the war?  # i. The El Niño didn’t make the harsh war winters.
# Temperature Map TM1 (page 5)

 A3. Man made climate – since 1850 (p. 3-12)    (in: PDF)
Can people alter weather and climate?  #  b. Where do we stand?  #  c. What should we look at? Anthropogenic ocean use!  #  d. Two world wars - two climatic changes  #  e. Comments concerning the terms "weather" and "climate"  # f. Further remarks. 
                                # Temperature Map TM2 (page 15)

B. A three year cold package. - Providing evidence?  (Page 13-42) (in: PDF)

a. Introduction  #  b. Warm & warmer – The situation prior to the WWII  #  c. Time witnesses see a lot, but understand little  #  d. Great Britain in rough seas  #  e. A power that turns the Baltic into ice  #  f. Three sea ice years in succession   #  g. A thriller about the cold – But science is ignorant  #  h. Europe cold vs. Globe warm; 1940-1942 - A summary,  
                                                # Temperature Map TM3 (page 25)

 C. Winter 1939/40   (Page 43-104)

C1.  War brings ice age back (p.  43-46 ), # Temperature Map TM4 (page 45)  (in: PDF)

C2.  Records, Records, Records – Introduction to the unexpected  (p.  47-50) (in: PDF)
a. In Focus  # 
b. Temperature  #  c. More remarkable weather events  #  d. Conclusion 

 C3.  War at sea 1939 - Facts and events  (p. 51-56 )      (in: PDF)
a. Introduction  #  b. The military strength in general  #  c. Total Naval war, and weather in opposition  #  d. Conclusion

 C4. The sky cries because of the war? Dry, Rain, Cold! (p. 57-66)      (in: PDF)
Why talk about rain? An Introduction  #  b. Does war make rain?  #  c. The factor of rain prior to winter 1939/40  #  d. Did the war show an effect in the U.S. in autumn 1939 and January 1940?  #  e. Natural variation?  # f. Is it possible to establish a connection with the war?  #  g. The findings until now can be summarized as follows:                                                  # Temperature Map TM5 (page 59)  

C5 Jet stream blocked by naval combat? (p. 67-74)     (in: PDF)
a. Air flow blocked – Understood? – An introduction  #  b. The first days and the cyclone in the German Bight  #  c. Blocking observed but not understood  #
d. Not competent enough to read the wind? #  e. The whole winter season affected  #  f. How R. Scherhag rated December 1939  #  g. An anthropogenic contribution to the preparation of a record winter
Temperature Map TM6 (page 69)

C6 The weather attacked in the Winter War: Russia vs. Finland   (p.  75-78)  (in: PDF)
a. Overview –When Russia went west   #  b.  Military overview 
; The New York Times reported   #  c. Weather summary  #  d. Winter War on land and in the air - Summary  

C7. The evidence in the ice of the Baltic Sea (p. 79-90)     (in: PDF)
a. An Overview – The numerous aspects to discuss  #  b. The icing condition, start, intensity, and duration in a brief view  #  c. Assault at the Bay of Gdansk starts an extraordinary ice season  #  d. Loss of heat by shells and anthropogenic forcing  # e. From Kiel to Gdansk the Kriegsmarine churned the sea  #  f. The Scandinavian in action and the Kattegat   # 
g. The Skagerrak on the edge  #  h. The German Bight and the sea ice  # i. How the navies prevented early icing in the Gulf of Finland   #  j. Randomly excluded

C8  From the North Sea to the Atlantic (p. 91-100)     (in: PDF)
a. Could early questions have minimised the worst?  #  b. The naval war situation around the UK   # c. Activities around southern England   # d. Cooling the North Sea a matter to reckon with  #  e. War theater in the North Sea   #  f. The west wind aisle mutates to a cold corridor  
                                             # Temperature Map TM7 (page 93)

C9.  Finally on the first war winter (p. 101-104)     (in: PDF)
a.  Factors & non-factors  #  b. From one autumn to the next  #  c.  From low to heavy ice cover in the Baltic  #  d. The sudden end to a two decade increased warming  # f. Summary

D.  Winter 1940/41 a climatic research delight (Page 105 - 122)     (in: PDF)
a.  Bad boys in navy blue and climate experts without a clou?  #  b.
Meteorological Situation  in Northern Europe    # c. Did the Skagerrak play a special role?  #  d. How deep could naval warfare penetrate?  #  e. The sea ice winter 1940/41  #  f. Summing up a winter of scientific delight  
Temperature Map TM8 (page 109)

 E. The War Winter 1941/42 (Page 123 - 154)

E1.  Did naval war stop Adolf Hitler before Moscow ? (p.  123-128)    (in: PDF)
a.  A "lightning war" (blitzkrieg) collapses in early December 1941  #  b.  An overview of Naval Battlefields and weather deviation  # 
c. Did the winter commence early?  #  d. Curiosity or what happened at Malgoviks primary school in Lappland/Sweden?  #  e. Early sea ice?  #  f. What made the winter of 1941/42 so severe? 
Temperature Map TM9 (page 125)

E2  “Barbarossa“ & its appendix, - The naval war in the Baltic (p. 129-134)   (in: PDF)
a. Don’t ask what the weather has done to the war, but what the war has done to the weather!  #  b. The Failure of the land and air offensive  #  c. The naval arm of ‘Barbarossa’ in the Baltic 

 E3   When the weather broke down along the Eastern Front (p. 135-140)    (in: PDF)
a. The forecast  #  b.  A Russian account  #  c.  Further Details  #  d. What else need science to get serious – The Tallinn case!  # 
e. Six months deviation  #  f. Three months deviation

 E4  The winter of 1941/42 (p.  141-148)       (in: PDF)
a. What does one need to know?  #  b. Great Britain ’s weather  #  c. Germany   #  d. Denmark   #  e. Finland   # f. Sweden   # g. A cold air pool on visit  # h. Consideration                                                     #Temperature Map TM10 (page 143 )

 E5 What evidence does sea ice offer in the Baltic (p. 149-152)      (in: PDF) 
a. What to look for?  #  b. The Danish ice report (excerpts)  #  c. The Swedish ice report by G. Liljequist (excerpts)  #  d. The Finish ice observer Erkki Palosuo  #  e. Discussion

 E6  Summary: Easy climate research with the winter 1941/42 (p. 153-154)   (in: PDF)

 F. Any role of El Niño? (Page 155 - 160)     (in: PDF)
a. Asking the right question?  # b. What are the facts?  # 
c. El Niño thesis is superficial  # d. How reliable are the temperature data to establish an El Niño?  # e. Items to be considered  #  f. These observations and the Brönnimann thesis  #  g. Conclusion 
  # Temperature Map TM11 (page 157)

 G. Global Cooling from 1940-1970 (Page 161 - 176)

G1.  An Atlantic matter?  (p. 161-168)    (in: PDF)
a. A settled issue?  #  b. How global cooling was discussed first  #  c. What are David Thompson et al. talking about?  #  d. The time matters  #  e. Too curious? Or, towards new thinking with the jellyfish?
                                              # Temperature Map TM12 (page 163 )

G2 What does the ‘ Battle of the Atlantic ’ mean to the marine environment? (p. 169-172)       (in: PDF)
a. Introduction to WWII Atlantic matters  #  b. Physical stress to the Atlantic ?  #  c. For example: Atlantic Convoys  #  d. The chapter air planes in naval warfare matter  #  e. German/Axis U-boats  #  f. Atlantic Sea Mines  #  g. Arctic Convoys  # h. Total Allies loss

G3  Discussing the kick off to global cooling (p.  173-176)   (in: PDF)
a.  The North Atlantic is not the only but the dominant factor  # 
b. The Sea Surface Temperature issue  #  c.  What can NAO tell?  #  d.  A link between the North Atlantic and Europe ?  #  e.   The temperature-drop issue  # f. Summery remarks

 H.  Pacific War, 1942-1945, contributing to Global Cooling? ( Page 177 - 188)  (in: PDF)

a Introduction  # b. The Pacific War  # c.  A cold winter in Japan 1944/45 only due to natural variation?  # d. The regional extent of the cold winter  #  e. Coldest May & July on record – The data 1945  #  f. A clue from SST and correlation?  # g. The Shift in the Pacific – mid 1940s –?   #  h. Interpreting the PDO record  #  i. Discussion and Summary
                                               # Temperature Map TM13 (page 181)

I.  Warming before Cooling – The trace to the First World (Page 189 - 200)  
(in: PDF)

a.   A WWI ended with a Climatic Jump  #
b.  A big naval war, and a big temperature shift in the Arctic  #  c. Conclusion  
Temperature Map TM14 (page 191)

 J. Results: (Page 203 - 210)  (in: PDF)

K. Reference (Page 211-219)



L. Index – Images (Page 220 - 224)

PDF about 15 MB



A climatic schock! 
The first three war winters 

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